Achievements in theoretical mechanics are associated primarily with Archimedes, although the pseudo-Aristotelian treatise Problems of Mechanics also became well known. Introduction. Hellenistic culture was the world-wide Greek culture that followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. For the first time, there were museums and great libraries, such as those at Alexandria and Pergamon (1972.118.95). Religion and mythology. At the same time, three new philosophical schools emerged and contended with one another for influence in the Hellenistic world: skepticism, Epicureanism, and Stoicism. Hellenistic History and Culture. Two types of Hellenistic mosaics are distinguished: the first is typified by a free, painterly manner of execution; the second is more severe and classical. Although the architectural types of public, residential, and religious buildings dated, for the most part, to the archaic and classical periods of Greece, they were reinterpreted in the spirit of the age. The starting date for this period is chosen because that's when Phillip of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, unified Macedonia (area north of the Greek peninsula) and the Greek city states. Correspondingly, what is Hellenistic culture? Athletics were extremely important, and were introduced to the people they ruled with varying effects. Although local variants were preserved in the pantheon and in the forms of worship, certain universal deities that united similar functions of the most commonly worshiped gods of various peoples gained increasing acceptance. Hellenization, or Hellenism, refers to the spread of Greek culture that had begun after the conquest of Alexander the Great in the fourth century, B.C.E. The forms of worship of the deities changed, and the mysteries took on a more orgiastic character. How were the Indian Ocean routes and Silk routes similar? The literature of the Hellenistic age achieved considerable success in the description of man’s inner world and everyday life; the use of folk traditions expanded the boundaries of literary genres. Greek (also known as Hellenic) culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influ-ences. Hellenistic Greece comes later on. Hellenistic culture is one of the most understudied and exciting areas of ancient history. The most important historian of the second century was Polybius, who wrote a history of the world from 220 to 146. The museum and library of Alexandria was the center of this conservationist activity. Substantial influences on Hellenistic culture were the highly charged political atmosphere of the time, continual military conflicts between the states, and the social movements within the states. The Hellenistic Period is a part of the Ancient Period for the European and Near Asian space. Some of these commanalities were: some sort of connection to the Greece through Alexander, Greek cultural influence, and Greek language. For a brief book on hellenism, see: F. W. Walbank's Hellenistic World. Circa 300 B.C, Aristotle’s pupil Dicaearchus drew a map of the entire known world and attempted to ascertain the dimensions of the globe; his results were specified by Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who made valuable contributions to a wide variety of disciplines. Using eastern traditions, the Hellenistic kings forcibly implanted the cult of royalty. and Cleitarchus of Alexandria (no earlier than 280–270), the history of the Greeks in the western Mediterranean region by Timaeus of Tauromenium (shortly after 264), and the history of Greece from 280 through 219 by Phylarchus of Athens. Hellenistic culture was created when Alexander moved place to place concurring and befriending the people of their country. The phrase was derived from Hellas meaning Greece. Architecture and art. Hellenistic art is richly diverse in subject matter and in stylistic development. The gods of the Greek pantheon became identified with the ancient eastern deities and were endowed with new traits. Subsequent histories of the world were written by Posidonius of Apamea, Nicholas of Damascus, Agatharchides of Cnidos, and Diodorus Siculus. Posidonius of Rhodes wrote, in addition to philosophical works, several works in such fields as geography, astronomy, and meteorology. Epicurus, who based his doctrines on the atomistic theory of Democritus and the ethics of the Cyrenaics, began teaching in 309 B.C. In the Idylls of Theocritus, an everyday situation was often developed in the dramatic form of a singing contest or presented as a dramatic scene, or mime, from the life of an urban family. Notable genres were the erotic romance, involving legendary kings and generals (the Ninus Romance), and pseudohistorical depictions of the ideal social structure, as in the works of Iamblichus and Euhemerus. The syncretic cults that emerged in the East reached the city-states of Asia Minor, Greece, and Macedonia and eventually spread as far as the western Mediterranean. Start your 48-hour free trial and unlock all the summaries, Q&A, and analyses you need to get better grades now. The syncretism of Hellenistic religion influenced the architectural development of temples, sanctuaries, altars, and memorial buildings, all of which exhibited to a greater extent than did civic structures an interaction with the art of the East; examples are the Sanctuary of Asclepius on Cos, the Kom el-Shugafa catacombs in Alexandria, and the fortified city of Ai-Khanum in northern Afghanistan. (Historical Terms) characteristic of or relating to Greek civilization in the Mediterranean world, esp from the death of Alexander the Great (323 bc) to the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra (30 bc) 2. The Hellenistic age witnessed a flourishing of the epigram, which focused on the theme of love: the arousal of passion, lovers’ meetings, and unrequited passions. The Hellenistic culture is usually defined as the culture of the period from 336 BC to the time when the Roman Empire started to become very powerful in the late first century BCE. To be honest, one must readily acknowledge the diversity within hellenism, but there were some commonalities. For example, the Jews were avid patrons of the gymnasiums, but those citizens of Greek descent disliked their presence, at least in Egypt. Tendencies common to all Hellenistic art may be traced in vase paintings, glyptic, and toreutics, as well as in the fine crafted glass vessels. When Alexander died (323), his many leaders (diadochi) carved out his kingdom among themselves. More specifically, it comes with the death of Alexander the Great in 323. For example, Ptolemy situated himself in Egypt and started the Ptolemaic empire. After Phillip of Macedon unified the Greeks, there was a push towards Persia by Alexander, his son. Although the Hellenistic Perod "officially" ended when Rome rose, the Hellenistic culture continued to be very influential. So, one can hellenisitc culture spans from Greece to India! The art of bookmaking reached a high level of development in Alexandria, in part because of Egypt’s monopoly on papyrus. The campaigns of Alexander the Great led to an expansion of geographic knowledge. Hellenistic sculptures were based more on realism and mote natural work, rather than idealized forms from the … The center of Hellenistic Culture was Alexandria (Egypt) Click again to see term . The inner tension of the figures and the exterior dynamism of the forms interacted with the surrounding space. to the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century of the Common Era. Why is the Battle of Saratoga considered a turning point in the American Revolution? The complex and contradictory nature of Hellenistic sculpture was manifested in the coexistence of idealized portraits of monarchs; statues of deities on an extremely monumental scale (the Colossus of Rhodes); grotesque mythological figures, such as sileni and satyrs; proud, majestic figures, such as those of the Tanagra terra-cottas; precisely observed representations of old persons; and dramatic “portraits of the philosophers.” Sculpture for parks and gardens, imbued with a spirit of calm, underwent extensive development. Code Of Hammurabi Laws Compared To Today's Laws. What are the differences between the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire? Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy, Literature and Art Hellenistic philosophy went through a peculiar evolution—or retrogression, it might almost be better to say. Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria As a result of Alexander’s policies, a vibrant new culture emerged. A specifically Hellenistic cult was that of Serapis, a deity who owed his existence to the religious policy of the Ptolemies, who sought to unite the anthropomorphic figures of Zeus and Poseidon, familiar to the Greeks, with the functions of the Egyptian zoomorphic deities Osiris and Apis. The originality of Hellenistic architecture is apparent in the impressive plastic compositions of the altars of Asia Minor, notably the Altar of Zeus in Pergamum. The conquests of Alexander the Great spread Hellenism Hellenism, the culture, ideals, and pattern of life of ancient Greece in classical times. Religion and mythology. Hellenistic age definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. If a typological approach is used, the chronological and geographic boundaries of Hellenistic culture are expanded to such a degree that the term encompasses the entire culture of the classical world from the time of Alexander the Great’s campaigns in the fourth century B.C. All were united by a common interest in the individual’s behavior and cast of mind and in his achievement of inner independence from the world around him; as a result, the emphasis shifted from ontological to ethical problems. Influenced by them, the empirical school of medicine emerged at the turn of the second century B.C; its adherents, notably Philinus of Cos and Serapion of Alexandria, regarded experience as the sole source of medical knowledge. Hellenistic Culture: The Hellenistic Era began after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. A hellenistic scientist of Syracuse, who estimated the value of Pi, and also the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. It usually means primarily the culture of Athens and the related cities during the Age of Pericles..... Click the link for more information. Reviving the concepts of pre-Socratic philosophy, especially the philosophy of Heraclitus, the Stoics pictured the cosmos as a rational, fiery spirit, or breath, that comprised a multiplicity of logoi, one of which is man. How were they different? The most characteristic feature of Hellenistic religion and mythology was syncretism, in which the heritage of the East played a major role. (reprint, 2008), Creativity and cultural influence in early Jewish law. During the Hellenistic age, Plato’s Academy, Aristotle’s Lyceum (the Peripatetic school), the Cynics, and the Cyrenaics remained active. In form, many historical works resembled fiction: the exposition of events was skillfully dramatized, and rhetorical devices were used to produce an emotional effect on a wide audience. Typically, historians start the Hellenistic Age with the death of Alexander, whose empire spread from India to Africa, in 323 B.C. I’m going to stab at a related question, which is the legacy of Hellenistic culture. In eastern Hellenic art the Greek orders were subjected to local variations, as in the pseudo-Corinthean capitals on the columns at Ai-Khanum. This was a fusion of Greek thought and Egyptian culture. Hellenistic culture exhibited more strikingly than classical Greek culture the differences between the life of the hellenized upper social strata and that of the urban and rural poor, among whom local traditions were preserved for a longer period of time. https://mymodernmet.com/what-is-hellenistic-sculpture-history Such a conception fails to take into account the qualitative changes that took place in ideology and culture after the Roman conquest and, especially, during the crisis and decline of slaveholding society. Who are the experts?Our certified Educators are real professors, teachers, and scholars who use their academic expertise to tackle your toughest questions. The characteristics of the Hellenistic period include the division of Alexander's empire, the spread of Greek culture and language, and the flourishing of the arts, science and philosophy. During the first stage it was still under the influence of Greek thought and consequently showed an elemental regard for reason as the key to the solution of man's problems. Are you a teacher? A comparison even of the major Hellenistic cities (such as Alexandria, Antioch, and Pergamum), where the Greco-Macedonian population was dominant, shows clearly that each city had its own particular, characteristic cultural features; such features are even more evident in the inland regions of the Hellenistic states, for example, in Thebais, Babylonia, and Thrace. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. A second school of historiography took a more rigorous and dry exposition of the facts; its works, however, were not free from tendentiousness. The skeptics subsequently merged with Plato’s Academy, where Arcesilaus founded the Middle Academy and Carneades founded the New Academy; during the first century B.C. Hellenistic architecture is characterized by an effort to master large open spaces and to create an effect of grandeur; also evident is a desire to impress the viewer through the scale and boldness of the engineering, the logic of structural elements, the imposing quality of the architectural forms, and the precision and mastery with which structures were executed. Already a member? One must think of the development of the eastern Mediterranean, really, in two major phases. Paul, who moved easily in three different worlds--Pharisaic Judaism, in which he enjoyed considerable authority; He looks at such features as housing, education, women, eating and drinking, theater, religion, and the persistence of, Thus, in western Palestine, Jews had to preserve and perpetuate their culture through the "media and methods" of the more pervasive, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Egypt: full name, the Arab Republic of Egypt; Gumhuria Misr al-Arabia, Arts of the Hellenized East: Precious Metalwork and Gems of the Pre-Islamic Era, Archaeological team discovers Ptolemaic cemetery in Alex, 2,300 Years Old Gymnasium Discovered In Egypt, The history of oil lamps: Dr Alp Cam reports on his research, Deep History, Secular Theory: Historical and Scientific Studies of Religion, La voie du Christ: Il, developpements de la Christologie dans le contexte religieux de l'Orient ancien, D'Eusebe de Cesaree a Jean Damascene (IVe-VIIIe), Daily life in the Hellenistic Age; from Alexander to Cleopatra. 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