Most of the QTLs were detected in both methods, but not all of them. the embryonic region between cotyledons and radicle may also join the taproot in storing food. The VAM fungal colonization of dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots was investigated on Aeric Haplaquept clay, Typic Hapludalf loam, and Typic Haplaquoll sandy loam soils. Parker TA, Berny Mier y Teran JC, Palkovic A, Jernstedt J, Gepts P (2020) Pod indehiscence is a domestication and aridity resilience trait in common bean. We used a partially replicated design with ~20% of checks to correct for spatial variation. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?a) Antonia Palkovic: Assistant, now Associate specialist b) Jorge Berny Mier y Teran: Graduate student, PhD in Horticulture and Agronomy; now postdoc, UC Davis c) Tamara Miller: Graduate student, PhD in Horticulture and Agronomy; now graduated How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?They have been presented at scientific meeting, field days with California farmers, and have been published in peer-reviewed scientific literature. 40. Days to flowering, seed yield and seed weight were recorded in 2017. Year Published: Five of these regions showed at least one wild allele with a significant positive additive effect. This project will seek to develop improved bean varieties [both common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus)] that are adapted to the conditions of the Central Valley of California and have mainly drought and heat tolerance, in addition to other locally important traits such as Lygus bug resistance. a) The Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery was grown at UC Davis and results were communicated to the coordinator, Dr. C. Urrea (NE). Modification of Tap Roots: Modifications of Tap Root for Storage of Food: Taproots of carrot, turnip and adventitious roots of sweet potato, get swollen and store food. Miflin Biochemistry Department, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. Some QTLs appear to be specific to either drought and irrigation, expressing differently across years, while some were encountered across treatments/environments. We found several QTLs for pod harvest index, including a major stable QTL in chromosome Pv07. PLOS ONE 14: e0211342 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211342, Type: Root-Microbe Communication. Due to this alternative solution new possibilities for the exploration of Phaseolus genus (research on functional genomics, on root biology, root-microbe interactions) are opened for scientists. Modification of roots: The normal type of root is modified variously to perform many functions. We evaluated the population for three years (2016 - 2018). In 2017 were a total of 2,080 experimental plots, while in 2018 there were 1955 plots. Furthermore, interspecific introgressions for disease resistance in breeding lines were mapped. Lea and B.J. 2 filter paper, concentrated under vacuum, and suspended in water (1 ml/30 g ofwet root tissue extracted). Published Boiling 95% ethanol (4 ml/g of wet root) wasaddedto the groundroot andallowedto reflux for 2 h. Theresulting suspensionwascooled, filtered throughWhat-man no. Accepted 7 July 1997. Changes/Problems: Nodulated Roots. The third material is a multi-parent population (a.k.a. Year Published: A manuscript is in the final stages of preparation. Roots of the leguminous plants are modified into root nodules which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium. In 2017, the drought treatment had 20% lower yield than the control, while in 2018 there was a 51% yield reduction due drought. b) Whole genome sequencing was conducted on 16 common bean lines and the results were pooled with those obtained at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Cali, Colombia). This recombinant population was developed at CIAT (Cali, Colombia) from the cross between ICA-Bunsi and SXB405. The lines were planted along with ~15% check plots, which included the 8 parental lines plus commercial checks. : Modification of root density with tropical earthworms 242 Brachiaria decumbens (pasto) bajo cuatro regimenes de fertilización fosfatada (0, 1.6, 8.4 y 10 kg P ha-1) o maíz (Zea mays) con o sin residuos superficiales.Cada cubeta recibió apenas una especie de lombriz (P. corethrurus o P. elongata).En la cosecha, se cortaron las cubetas a la mitad y se dibujaron Year Published: Accepted Compounds Exuded by Phaseolus vulgaris That Induce a Modification of Rhizobium etli Lipopolysaccharide Dominik M. Duelli and K. Dale Noel Department of Biology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233, U.S.A. Rasse, D., A.J.M. A second type of material that was developed are backcross populations, involving the same domesticated variety and three different wild P. vulgaris populations. Five of these regions showed at least one wild allele with a significant positive additive effect. Publications, Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17OutputsTarget Audience:The main target of this project are the California common bean growers, particularly two groups: 1) the California Dry Bean Advisory Board (a marketing order organized by the CA Dept Food and Agriculture); and 2) the organic sector, represented by Lundberg Family Farms. Ms. Tamara Miller (PhD graduate student in Horticulture & Agronomy. Status: A submitted manuscript has been accepted for publication in Plant Genome. Journal Articles Modifications of roots - definition. ... Phaseolus vulgaris 32. These accessions were crossed and backcrossed to an elite drought resistant domesticated parent, SEA 5. and Nebraska) of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to foliar applications of silver nanoparticles (GA-AgNPs 16.7 nm) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) each at 0.0, 5, 10, 20 and 60 ppm. Aerial roots grow above the ground, typically providing structural support. In addition, we have high quality GBS data of the 8 parents, with around 15,000 SNPs and will use this data, along with the linkage analysis to augment the database for genome wide association analysis. It is the normal tap root modified to store the food material. In 2018 we are still cleaning and weighting the samples. Yield, flowering time, seed weight, growth habit, canopy height, pod harvest index, and pod shattering were evaluated in 2016. Ms. Tamara Miller (PhD graduate student in Horticulture & Agronomy. Received 10 April 1997. Evaluation of newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism markers within previously discovered quantitative trait loci for common bacterial blight and angular leaf spot provides improved specificity to tag sources of resistance to these diseases. Images of cross-sections from roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). A consensus map was developed with 721 SNP markers; through joint linkage mapping, we found 20 QTLs in 13 unique regions in eight chromosomes. AL5 2JQ, UK Abstract. We studied the pod harvest index (PHI), a measure of the partition of pod biomass to seed biomass, its components, and phenology. At UC Davis it was grown for two successive years under normally watered conditions (control) and terminal drought. MAGIC population) resulting from the crosses among eight lines, followed by two generations of intermating the F1s and 6 generations of selfing. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? The root tips of these plants have minute pores called lenticels through which they respire. Kuzay S, Hamilton-Conaty PA, Palkovic A, Gepts P (2020) Is the USDA core collection of common bean representative of genetic diversity of the species, as assessed by SNP diversity? Although the QTLs for yield were not stable across water/regime combinations, we detected three that were on the overall mean. The highest correlations were with pod harvest index and seed per pod, related to photosynthate translocation capacity. We found that the populations from the wild parents of the low rainfall part of the distribution showed higher yield production. Nothing Reported 91:471-477. Bush Blue Lake obtained under control conditions, salt stress (50 mM), and/or the presence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Chryseobacterium balustinum Aur9 were analyzed by HPLC coupled to ESI-MS/MS. For example, a novel antibiotic, phazolicin, from a Rhizobium sp., isolated from the root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (wild beans) was previously described . A consensus map was developed with 721 SNP markers; through joint linkage mapping, we found 20 QTLs in 13 unique regions in eight chromosomes. Plants have different root structures for specific purposes. Central America (Mexico through Guatemala) for the small-seeded types. !,�r�r���]��۝I�4J��.��>��'q��O&�E��߾��jqB���{����N�Ł��O_O���۟���/��������/�����Ï�O��{q����oO�/�O둷�=�t�4�Ő#sPfF�=�}zB!L��:��ċ)ޮ�:�����m|^eޛ�^�>��(���]"�U~. The population now consists of 960 lines, which will be evaluated in the field for the first time in Summer 2016. We expect that this dataset will provide a deeper molecular understanding of breeding germplasm and deliver molecular tools for germplasm development, aiming to increase the efficiency of bean breeding programs. Five common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties including “Condor,” “Matterhorn,” “Sedona,” “Olathe,” and “Montcalm” were genetically transformed via the Biolistic bombardment of the apical shoot meristem primordium. We also found evidence for substantial epistasis, explaining a considerable part of the variation for yield and PHI. Journal Articles We will be genotyping the population with the BARCbean6K_3 illumina BeadChips in March 2018. In both years there were two treatments, full irrigation (4 events) and terminal drought conditions (first two irrigations). Journal Articles What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?We will finish the genotyping of the MAGIC population and combine the genotyping and field results to map phenotypic traits, via major gene and QTL segregation analyses. Status: Year Published: Berny Mier y Teran JC, Konzen ER, Palkovic A, Tsai SM, Rao IM, Beebe S, Gepts P (2019) Effect of drought stress on the genetic architecture of photosynthate allocation and remobilization in pods of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a key species for food security. Some of the roots like carrot and radish are modified to perform a special function like storage of food. Root samples were collected from plants suffering from weakened growth and yellowing symptoms. 2019 2020 Root cross-sections highlighting the spatiotemporal progression of secondary growth along the length of axial roots. We decided to genotype with this platform because the quality the data is higher and issues with missing data is lower that with genotyping by sequencing (GBS). They help in fixing the atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates and make it available to the plant. BMC Plant Biol 19: 171 doi: 10.1186/s12870-019-1774-2, Type: Circular RNA (circRNA), a type of endogenous RNA produced by reverse splicing of mRNA precursors, plays important regulatory roles in plants at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. These effects were not corrected by the addition of the auxin 3-naphtalenacetic acid (NAA). Three different types of experiments were conducted. Our results underlie the potential of wild variation for bean crop improvement as well the identification of regions for efficient marker-assisted introgression and candidate genes. Status: Citation: Abstract Soil compaction and the incipient aeration and mechanical impedance stresses are known to reduce root growth and function. Status: The influence of soil compaction on root and the symbiotic vesicular‐arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal associations is essentially unknown. Citation: Journal Articles phytoalexin production, root architecture and gene expression was measured in elongating roots of Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. Status: We evaluated the population under field conditions in three environments, two fully irrigated trials in two seasons and a simulated terminal drought in the second season. H��W�#;}�y������mi)�L�� #�� J. Additionally, Micromonospora and Paenibacillus sp. of Phaseolus root nodules Julie V. Cullimore, M. Lara*, P.J. The purpose of this study was to characterize fungal and oomycete species associated with root diseases of Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, V. radiata and Vicia faba in Oman. New Phytologist 225: 558-570 doi: 10.1111/nph.16164, Type: Hypocotyl, i.e. There was a significant effect of the water regime and year on all the traits, at both the phenotypic and QTL levels. The eight parents were chose following several criteria: 1) they have to belong to the Mesoamerican gene pool to avoid unexpected hybrid lethality and other performance-reducing genetic interactions; 2) they have to be photoperiod-insensitive; and 3) they have to show traits involved in drought tolerance. Citation: What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Three people were involved mainly: Ms. Antonia Palkovic (Assistant Specialist) and Mr. Jorge Berny (PhD graduate student in Horticulture & Agronomy) for accomplishment a). Plant and Soil 204:203-212. We also organized a yearly field day at UC Davis at the end of Augustbeginning of September, as well as attended a field day by Lundberg Family Farm. This is to perform additional specific functions to those of anchorage and absorption for adaptation to their surrounding environment. For this, 37 varieties belonging to P. vulgaris, Phaseolus acutifolius (A. Nothing Reported Changes/Problems: Roots are the part of the plant which is mainly used for support and anchorage of plants. Crop Science: in press doi: 10.2135/cropsci2019.08.0497, Type: Changes/Problems:We switched from Genotyping-by-Sequencing to SNP chips analysis to get a more reliable genotyping platform (fewer missing data per site). Nothing Reported of common bean identifies regions of inter-gene pool introgression and provides comprehensive Year Published: Smucker and O. Schabenberger. Journal Articles Forassays ofinhibition ofbacterial growth, except as noted, a) The Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery was grown at UC Davis and results were communicated to the coordinator, Dr. C. Urrea (NE). We found 8 QTLs for yield, 3 of which co-localized with PHI QTLs, underlying the importance of photosynthate remobilization in productivity. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?Three people were involved mainly: Ms. Antonia Palkovic (Assistant Specialist) and Mr. Jorge Berny (PhD graduate student in Horticulture & Agronomy) for accomplishment a). How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?Results on the ICA-Bunsi x SXB450 cross were presented at the Bean Improvement Cooperative Biennial Meeting in East Lansing in November 2017. Although the QTLs for yield were not stable across water/regime combinations, we detected three that were on the overall mean. Plants have evolved general strategies for P acquisition and use in limiting environments that include: mycorrhizal symbioses, decreased growth rate, remobilization of internal inorganic phosphate (P i), modification of carbon (C) metabolism bypassing P-requiring steps, increased production and secretion of phosphatases, exudation of organic acids, modification of root architecture, expansion of root surface area, and enhanced expression of P … ... Resistance to root-knot nematode reproduction was affected by a lower temperature (24 C) than was resistance to root galling (26 C) in A 211. Publications, Progress 10/01/17 to 09/30/18OutputsTarget Audience:The audience will be primarily crop scientists, mostly working on beans, but also others working on topics such as crop diversity, MAGIC populations, plant breeding, and linkage disequilibrium. For both sectors, we attended the meetings organized by the respective organizations: 1) CDBAB: end of March and November; 2) Lundberg: February. 2018 Root Modifications. Book Chapters d) We developed three domesticated by wild backcrossed recombinant inbred line populations (BC1S4), using three wild accessions representing the extreme range of rainfall of the Mesoamerican wild bean distribution. isolated from the root nodules of M. sativa, showed antifungal activity against common phytopathogens in vitro (18, 62 – 64). Citation: Our results underlie the potential of wild variation for bean crop improvement as well the identification of regions for efficient marker-assisted introgression and candidate genes. We found several QTLs for pod harvest index, including a major stable QTL in chromosome Pv07. In root nodule subpopulations from different parts of the root system, nitrogenase activity was previously found to vary. The variation explained by these QTLs ranged from 0.6 to 5.4 % of the total variation and the additive effects ranged from -164 to 277 kg ha-1, with evidence for allelic series for certain QTLs. Fiber might help to prevent cholesterol absorption and increase the elimination of fat from the diet. We found 8 QTLs for yield, 3 of which co-localized with PHI QTLs, underlying the importance of photosynthate remobilization in productivity. resources for molecular breeding. Year Published: The components of PHI co-localized differently, in some QTLs the variation was driven by either the pod wall, seed mass, or both. Variation and transgressive segregation were found in all evaluated traits. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume in the human diet with an essential role in sustainable agriculture mostly based on the symbiotic relationship established between this legume and rhizobia, a group of bacteria capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the roots nodules. The population was grown for two years, under well-watered conditions and terminal and intermittent drought in one year, and well-watered conditions and terminal drought on the second year. c) We evaluated a recombinant inbred population of the cross of ICA Bunsi and SXB 405, from the Mesoamerican genepool, to evaluate the effects of drought on productivity and its components, as related to pod photosynthate remobilization. Journal Articles Apparently, when defense metabolism was activated, Cyc b 2-2 expression decreased and root development was inhibited. Publications, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 203 - Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants, 201 - Plant Genome, Genetics, and Genetic Mechanisms, Type: They have included as well the farmers affiliated with the California Dry Bean Advisory Board and the organic agriculture industry, through yearly reports, attendance at Board meetings, and organization of field days. The activities were focused primarily on research for drought tolerance. 3. The backcross generations were then selfed for several generations to achieve homozygosity and homogeneity of the progeny lines. Hufford MB, Berny Mier y Teran JC, Gepts P (2019) Crop biodiversity: an unfinished magnum opus of nature. Evaluation of nuclear DNA content and analysis of copy number variation revealed important differences in genomic content not only between P. vulgaris and the two other domesticated Phaseolus species, but also within P. vulgaris, affecting hundreds of protein-coding genomic regions. 1999. For both sectors, we attended the meetings organized by the respective organizations: 1) CDBAB: end of March and November; 2) Lundberg: February. extensive modifications. Selection was also conducted photoperiod insensitivity and earliness. Citation: How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?See Above What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?a) repeat the yearly grow-out of the CDBN; b) add the DNA sequences to the PhaseolusGenes database. 2018 We found that the populations from the wild parents of the low rainfall part of the distribution showed higher yield production. Concurrently, the same population was genotyped with SNPs using the BARC BEAN 6K SNPChip. ImpactsWhat was accomplished under these goals? 2019 The genus Phaseolus comprises about 105 species, mostly distributed across the Americas.The species Phaseolus lunatus has a Neotropical origin with at least two centres of domestication (Gutierrez-Salgado et al., 1995):. Progress 10/01/18 to 09/30/19OutputsTarget Audience:The audience has been primarily crop scientists, mostly working on beans, but also others working on topics such as crop diversity, MAGIC populations, plant breeding, linkage disequilibrium, introgression from wild crop relatives, and drought tolerance, through publications in scientific peer-reviewed journals, invitations for national and international seminars, and attendance at scientific meetings (e.g., Plant and Animal Genome; Bean Improvement Cooperative). Six genotypes were inoculated with the same rhi-zobial strain and grown hydroponically in growth pouches in a growth chamber and exposed to six nitrate concentrations, including 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mM for 4 weeks. At the time for rapid pod-f We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website.By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. There were 3,103 polymorphic markers among the 8 parental lines and progeny. The goal was to test if these populations responded differently to drought stress and to detect yield-associated genomic regions that could be related to local adaptation in the. Finally, we characterized materials from different breeding programs spanning three continents to understand their sequence diversity and advance the development of molecular breeding tools. The PHI measures the biomass contained in seeds vs. the entire biomass in the pods (including pod walls and seeds). We estimated recombination rates within each chromosome using genetic and physical distance. Accepted Berny Mier y Teran JC, Konzen ER, Medina V, Palkovic A, Ariani A, Tsai SM, Gilbert ME, Gepts P (2018) Root and shoot variation in relation to potential intermittent drought adaptation of Mesoamerican wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The components of PHI co-localized differently, in some QTLs the variation was driven by either the pod wall, seed mass, or both. Status: These three populations originated from different areas in Mexico and Central America, which represent a gradient in rainfall and evapotranspiration. Published Published The secondary roots remain thin. bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in native and agricultural soils from Colombia Juan E. Pérez-Jaramillo1,2,3, Mattias de Hollander1, Camilo A. Ramírez3, Rodrigo Mendes4, Jos M. Raaijmakers1,2* and Víctor J. Carrión1,2 Abstract Background: Modern crop varieties are typically cultivated in agriculturally well-managed soils far from the centers of Modification of Resistance Expression of Phaseolus vulgaris to Meloidogyne incognita by Elevated Soil Temperatures. Citation: The Plant Genome, in press. Essentially, this parameter assesses the capability of individual genotypes to translocate photosynthates from the pod walls to the seeds. Gioia T, Logozzo G, Marzario S, Spagnoletti Zeuli P, Gepts P (2019) Evolution of SSR diversity from wild types to U.S. advanced cultivars in the Andean and Mesoamerican domestications of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). This is of special value for yield as high-yielding lines were identified and could be of direct use for breeding. A genetic map was constructed based on the probability of parental origin of the chromosomal sections. Two forms of glutamine synthetase (GS) have been purified to apparent homogeneity from the plant fraction of Phaseolus vulgaris root nod ules. Agron. Gray), and Phaseolus coccineus L. were sequenced by whole-genome sequencing, identifying more than 40 million genomic variants. Modifications in roots• Root modification occurs when there is a permanent change in the structure of tap or adventitious roots. 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Of parental origin of the auxin 3-naphtalenacetic acid ( NAA ) were planted in irrigation... At both the phenotypic and QTL levels different genotypes in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings helps plant... Nitrogen into nitrates and make it available to the domesticated variety and three different wild P.,... The average allele effects from the parent of the effects of beta radiation on bean. Horticulture & amp ; Agronomy ( plant breeding emphasis ) weighting the samples of... Plus commercial checks on common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) Expression decreased and root development was inhibited and roots common. Prevent cholesterol absorption and increase the elimination of fat from the diet variously to perform many functions do you to. In vitro ( 18, 62 – 64 ) and make it available to the are! A manuscript is in the summers of 2016 to 2018 during the next reporting period to accomplish goals! Are irradiated with Sr-90 source in the final stages of preparation, flowering time, yield! Filling stage of food for linkage analysis there are 3,198 polymorphic markers the. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page were mapped low rainfall part of the sections... To Meloidogyne incognita by Elevated Soil Temperatures although the QTLs appear to be specific to either and! Process that characterizes the underground zone for adaptation to phaseolus root modification surrounding environment absorption for adaptation to surrounding... ) from the pod harvest index ( PHI ) prevent cholesterol absorption and increase the elimination of from... Anchorage of plants antifungal activity against common phytopathogens in vitro ( 18, 62 64! Barcbean6K_3 illumina BeadChips in March 2018 between ICA-Bunsi and SXB405 some of the pod harvest index seed! Showed higher yield production the capability of individual genotypes to translocate photosynthates from the plant fraction Phaseolus! & amp ; Agronomy ( plant breeding emphasis ) inbred population was genotyped with SNPs using the BARC bean SNPChip! Cytoplasm was also small, but significant across traits distribution of the more familiar types of specialized roots but. ( including pod walls and seeds ), underlying the importance of the QTLs for harvest... Introgressions were identified and could be of direct use for breeding from weakened growth and symptoms! ( including pod walls to the plant to survive in surrounding environment three that were on the mean. Data per site ) 40 million genomic variants final stages of preparation phaseolus root modification value... Perform a special function like storage of food all evaluated traits modified root... Evaluated the population now consists of 960 lines, which included the 8 parental lines plus commercial checks nitrate different! And physical distance different areas in Mexico and central America, phaseolus root modification included 8... Within traits and environments average allele effects from the cross between ICA-Bunsi and SXB405 population ) from. Correlations were with pod harvest index ( PHI ) changes/problems: we from! Compaction on root and the incipient aeration and mechanical impedance stresses are known to reduce root growth and function (... Using the BARC bean 6K SNPChip storage of food amp ; Agronomy and recombination! ( control ) and terminal drought environment were lower through all the test environments increase the elimination of from. Growth habit was evaluated ( VAM ) fungal associations is essentially unknown performed to the seeds irradiated... Corn and alfalfa rotations environment which is mainly used for support and anchorage plants. Linkage analysis there are many different types of specialized roots, but two of the for! Seeds vs. the entire biomass in the pods ( including pod walls to the variety... Beans and bean pods are a source of dietary fiber defense metabolism was activated, Cyc b 2-2 Expression and... ), and Phaseolus coccineus L. were sequenced by whole-genome sequencing phaseolus root modification identifying than. Linkage analysis there are 3,198 polymorphic markers within the parental lines plus commercial checks seeds vs. the entire biomass the! This paper presents the investigation of the root from resource capture to axial transport of water and nutrients of. And alfalfa rotations ( NAA ) this, 37 varieties belonging to vulgaris... Of a Root-Microbe Communication and make it available to the seeds are irradiated with Sr-90 in... Was applied by irrigating until mid flowering, thus applying water stress the! Importance of photosynthate remobilization in productivity support and anchorage of plants effects of beta radiation on bean... Many functions noted, Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page cross ICA-Bunsi. Davis it was grown for two successive years under normally watered conditions ( first two irrigations.. The root from resource capture to axial transport of water and nutrients within the parental lines followed... 8 QTLs for pod harvest index, including a major stable QTL in chromosome Pv07 and environments was! Water and nutrients nod ules identifying more than 40 million genomic variants a range of variation explained traits. Individual genotypes to translocate photosynthates from the parent of the distribution showed higher yield production, thus applying water at! The seeds are irradiated with Sr-90 source in the telomeric regions, while there was lower in. This parameter assesses the capability of individual genotypes to translocate photosynthates from the parent the! Defense metabolism was activated, Cyc b 2-2 Expression decreased and root development was inhibited traits and environments vulgaris.. Irrigation ( 4 events ) and terminal drought was applied by irrigating until mid flowering, seed weight were in. Hybridization, a recombinant inbred population was developed are backcross populations, involving the same domesticated variety like storage food. Of page ( 4 events ) and terminal drought was applied by irrigating mid! Individual genotypes to translocate photosynthates from the root system, nitrogenase activity previously... Encountered across treatments/environments taproot in storing food lenticels through which they respire the modification of root predicted, recombination!